Dr. Jafar Hadi Hassan
The violence of Israeli Jews has not stopped since the emergence of the State, and it has been increasing as the time progresses and the occupation continues to become a clear phenomenon. That political circumstances may sometimes be a factor in this violence and cause, but one of the reasons rooted in the Jewish conscience, in my opinion, is the belief of the vast majority of Jews that they are chosen and distinct people, chosen by the God of God and their preference to the peoples. This idea was first emphasized in their book “The Torah” in many different places, and later in their literature as Talmud and then in the words of the rabbis. In the Torah we read in Deuteronomy 7: 6-8 In the following text, “Because you are a holy people to the LORD your God, and you have chosen the Lord your God to have a special people for him from among all the peoples on the face of the earth, not because you are more than all the nations. The Lord is to you, and preserve the oath which I swear to your fathers, and he brings you out with a strong hand and your delegation from the house of bondage from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt. ” When the Talmud was published, statements were made to confirm and deepen this idea, while at the same time accompanying negative statements against non-Jews. In Sanhedrin one of the letters of the Talmud states that the Israelites are the pious who will inherit eternal life. In another letter, the work of the Israelites is always good, while others are only capable of doing evil. The rabbis took this idea into the minds of the Jews in various ways. Their rabbis have made many statements in this regard. These are the words of the most famous rabbis and philosophers Moses Maimonides: “Those who are outside the city are all people with no faith in him, not the theory and Tolklidip as the parties of Turk Almtgulin in the north, and the Sudan and the South and those who are like them, who are with us in these territories, And I do not have the rank of man, and they are from the ranks of the assets below the rank of the human, and higher than the rank of the monkey, since they got the shape of the human, and planning and discrimination above the discrimination of the monkey. The founder of the Lubavitch group, Rabbi Schnelman Zalman, said in his book Tanya: “The Jew has two souls: one is pure holiness, part of God, and this soul is only in the Jews, and another is animal, which provides man with life and is in the Jews and others. A mixture of good and evil. In non-Jews it is a pure evil, no good at all. ” This book, written by the author in Hebrew, has been issued at least sixty-five editions, which means the desire to acquire and the abundance of reading. His great grandson, Rabbi Mendel Schneerson, said that the body of the Jew is of a different origin than the bodies of all peoples. From these words, Rabbi Abraham Isaac Cook (1938), whose son Rabbi Zvi, the spiritual parents of the Zionist fundamentalists of today, And the non-Jewish soul, greater and deeper than the human soul and the animal’s soul. “Moreover, this belief entered their prayers by saying,” Praise be to God who has chosen us. ” This idea of supremacy has been entrenched – because of its emphasis on Jewish vivisection and its lack of feeling, as well as the inferior view of others that accompanied the idea of choice for Jews as well. I mentioned this idea also began with the Torah, for example, what is mentioned in the Book of Deuteronomy 1: 7 And if the LORD will bring you into the land that you are in, to inherit it and expel many nations before you …. Seven nations are stronger and more powerful than you, and the Lord your God delivered them to your hands and beat them. He forbade them to boycott them (kill them for the last of them). Do not cut off a covenant with them, and do not disobey them, do not disobey them, give your daughter to his son, or take his daughter to your son. And they break their monuments and destroy their holy poles and burn their statues with fire. “This is another example that has deepened in the later literature until the present age. Therefore, non-Jews were given several negative traits, such as Gueim, Gnome, Kavrim, and others. In the Jewish tradition, the view of Ismail, who believes that Abu-Arab is not a positive one. The little son of Abraham was sacrificed, and the prophet Abraham offered to sacrifice him – as the Bible states – and did not offer Ishmael and that the Lord had established the covenant with him, not with Ishmael. And in their books also that the Lord offered to the Arabs the law, which he revealed and when they asked him about the mention of the Ten Commandments, of which do not kill do not steal do not weigh, the Arabs responded that they reject it and do not want it, and said that we want to practice these things. Their religious schools until today, and also call the Arabs Amalek, who according to the Torah are the enemies of the Hebrews of history. “One day the Lord will erase the mention of the Amalekites,” as they attributed to the Prophet Moses. The former Sephardic Chief Rabbi of Israel, Ovadia Yosef, described the Palestinians as Amalekites Time has been called upon them Many of Jehovah’s time to remove them out of existence. Thus, the minds of these Arabs have become a major part of this view, which is characterized by contempt and inferiority. It is therefore not surprising that the vast majority of Israeli schoolchildren describe Palestinians as murderers and thieves when they were surveyed a few years ago when asked about the definition of a Palestinian. The belief in this idea is also the belief that Palestine was given to the Jews alone and no one to share it with, as the other demonizes and deceives them, and taking them as they think and expelling them and killing them is a sacred act, because it cleanses them of this uncleanness. The overwhelming majority of immigrants took this view with them to Palestine. After the Declaration of the Balfour Declaration and the increase of the settlers in Palestine and the increase in their stature, they applied their view against the Palestinians. When he saw the Zionist leader of the Zionist movement, “Ahad Haaam,” he treated them with the Palestinians on this basis and on the basis of this view warned them of this. He told them in a well-known voice: “The Jews should not consider themselves superior to the Arabs; they should be seen as self-respecting people The Arabs, especially the urban dwellers, understand very well what we want and what we are doing in the country, but they pretend that they do not know or notice because they do not see at the present time any of them. Faults themselves, or future M as we do, and try to turn the work of these new guests in their favor, but when it comes the day when the lives of our people in the land of Israel has reached a degree, so that local people pay aside, a lot or a little, it will not be a easy to give up their land. “The settlers must deal with the local people with love and respect,” he said. “But these settlers have kept their ears on the advice of their compatriots. They have continued to assault and abuse the Palestinians, and the indifference towards them, so the Palestinians have rebelled against them more than once, as in 1929 and 1936. And these ideas became clearer after the emergence of the state and its emergence and support of these – the strong state has protected him and not protect the other and became the persecution of the other and the use of violence against him and kill him easy. Shapira has issued a book in 2009 entitled “The Bible of the King” in which he said that non-Jews may be killed even the children of them, because these will become as evil as their parents when they grow up.And the publication of the book criticized some officials the content of the book in a false and inflammatory fuss, but it disappeared, the book It was widely distributed in Israel. The roots of this idea are found in their ancient literature, as in “Baba 38a.” The words of these people deeply shed the conscience of the human being, deeply shakes emotions, and makes human rights a real farce. Like the former Sephardic Chief Rabbi Mordechai Eliyahu, “We are not surprised by the fact that some of these people burned innocent people alive, and even became the ones who kill the Palestinians from these people,” said Rabbi Yaakov Fern, in his homage to Baruch Goldstein. A saint, as is the case with Baruch Goldstein, who killed 29 Palestinians And build him a declaration on his grave visit them, and get involved with him. —————- * It should be noted here that the Jews who do not believe in the idea of choice, and considers it a racist idea does not agree with the attributes of justice of God. These, the Jewish philosopher Spinosa (which we wrote a chapter In our book Jewish issues and personalities). Some of them have established Jewish groups in the 20th century, with many followers and believers, such as Rabbi Mordechai Kaplan and Rabbi Sherun Wein.
Celebrating the Civilization of Babel * Dr. Jafar Hadi Hassan
Babel was famous for its tower and its outstanding gardens, and few of them knew about its civilization and heritage. Although many of its remains are still trapped underground, where thousands of archaeological sites are waiting to be uncovered, what the archaeologists have devised is not so small. “One can say without exaggeration that there is no country in the world behind ancient texts of this magnitude that has reached us as I wrote,” said one European scholar, speaking of Mesopotamia. “These texts give a picture of the uniqueness of Babylonian civilization with its many facets And its impact on the development of knowledge in human history. One of the important things that played a role in the survival of this civilization was the interest of the Babylonians in writing and writing, and gave them great importance, so they wrote a goddess called “Nisaba” carrying the pen, “which was the task of supervising the writing and art. Who were also scholars and prominent owners of kings and society, played a very important cultural role, especially in the first phase of the Old Babylonian Kingdom (at the beginning of the second millennium BC). They succeeded in mastering the Sumerian language (which is not Semitic) Its symbols by their names, and the way they pronounce them In the Akkadian language (Semitic), and then composing the dictionaries in these two languages, where we received samples from them. These were first-rate translators (and the Arabs and Europeans inherited the word “Turjemanu” from the Babylonians). And to them, as it was said, the civilization of Mesopotamia was not. The scribes were trained in their own school called “I-Doba” and literally means “House of the Tablets.” What he discovered from this school gives us a clear idea of it and the nature of the subjects in which it is taught. At the head of the school was a person called Omiya, Sumeria means “expert / acquaintance” followed by the class administrator, called “Ada Adoba” and then there are specialists such as “Topcharnsh” expert / professor of mathematics and “Topashar Ashaka” expert / professor of engineering and surveying. The most important subject taught in this school is the Sumerian language and is called the professor taught by “Topashar Kankira” specialist in Sumerian and its professor, who had a special site in this school. And the efforts of these scribes – scientists are today a lot of admiration. Had it not been for these efforts, they would not have been able to learn the Sumerian language, decipher its secrets and understand its meaning. The linguistic dictionaries written by these writers are a new work and one of the first attempts in the history of human knowledge. The work of the Babylonians was independent from what had been done in the Ebla civilization in Syria. Such dictionaries were not written for many centuries, since the Greeks did not care about the languages of other peoples. These dictionaries became useful to the rest of the peoples after Akkadian became the language of diplomacy and commerce in the Near East . It is the language used by the rulers and the kings. This is evidenced by the letters of the Amarna, dating from the fourteenth century BC. These letters, which numbered several hundred in Akkadian, were sent by a number of rulers and princes in countries of the Near East And the Anatolia region to Amenhotep the third Pharaoh Egypt and his son Akhenaton (2). As time progressed, the Babylonians were interested in composing special dictionaries, such as dictionaries of names of stones, plants, animals and minerals. They also invented dictionaries of verb meanings, linguistic dictionaries of antibodies and synonyms, and even the roots and derivatives and uses of them, as well as dictionaries of rare words used in literature. These dictionaries did not differ from specific explanations and commentaries from the first millennium BC (3) The researchers found that the development of writing by the Babylonians did not take long, despite the precise rules they developed and the excellent literature they produced. The Babylonians were not only men but also women writers from early Babylonian civilization, as evidenced by the discoveries of the city of Spar (5), which lies north of Babylon. Literacy was not confined to a certain class of people, such as writers and priests, but many of the literary texts they found came from the homes of ordinary people. 6 Some may have private libraries. This gives us an idea that the Babylonian had literary interests as well. One of the first finds found by the archaeologists, which impressed the people is Maarif Hamurabi law. Although some laws have preceded them in Mesopotamia, such as the law of the king of Petach-Ishtar, and the Ur-growth and law of the state of Ashunna, the law of Hammurabi is the most famous of these laws and the most comprehensive and detailed. It contains more than two hundred and eighty paragraphs, including many areas of life. It was also distinguished by the beauty, accuracy and clarity of language. In some of her preamble, which gives some of the reasons for its legislation, “It is for justice to prevail in the country and to eliminate evil and injustice, so as not to persecute the weak strong people.” Models have been put in public places such as temples for people to learn and know, , And the texts of these laws became a model for the so-called ancient Babylonian language. Like Barzabalbion in the legislation of the laws, they were also famous in other fields such as medicine. The doctor, who was called “Aso” (Assi in Arabic and Asia / Asa in Syriac), an important site in the community, and was a member of the upper class, and his career was distinct to have no relation to religion or magic, ASHEVO. (In Aramaic “Hehef” and in Syriac “Asheva” and in Hebrew only in the Torah in the collection “Ashfim”) while the doctor – who distinguished people by carrying his tools with him and the method of shaving his hair and clothing – learns his profession study first. After the completion of the study he was practicing with those who are older than him in the profession and more experienced than him. These doctors had a president named “Lord Assi” (Chief / Chief Medical Officer) and we have received a large number of tablets that lists lists of symptoms, diseases and prescriptions written by doctors. It contains a diagnosis of natural causes of disease (the oldest prescription is believed to have been from the Mesopotamia of the Third Dynasty at the end of the third millennium BC). These are some of the recipes that have been discovered that the constituents of the drug are still (or some) used today for the same disease. The most important texts in the field of medicine are important authors considered by the researchers a masterpiece of science dating back to the middle of the second millennium BC at least, And speculation. “Some researchers believe that this author may have contained five thousand to six thousand paragraphs and found forty plates, of which almost half. (7) These doctors also knew the infection and its people. As he found letters sent to doctors where a lot of details of cases of illness and some of these messages contained some names of doctors also. In treating these diseases, doctors used not only medicines but also tools. Some of these physicians had been sent from Babylon to treat contemporary kings of the Babylonians, such as the Hittite King III, in the thirteenth century BC. The spread of medicine is the presence of at least seven articles in the law of Hammurabi related to surgery. . Some researchers believe that the Babylonians have also practiced psychotherapy, which is believed to be a product of modern times. The Babylonians were interested in mathematics, and thousands of figures and plates were found, which included numbers arranged in different ways, subtractions, calculations and calculations concerning architecture, land area, and watering, and many plates containing exercises, some with their solutions, others without them and some with advanced levels. The metal manufacturing was common and gave to those who had it a general name indicating its competence is “Nafakho” (Aramaic and Arabic blower). Then they allocated it by adding the name of the metal to him The name of mourning “Frzillo blower” Which is used in gold “Khursi Blower” (from this word took the Greek word Groossus for gold), says George Row in his book Iraq Old. There is no doubt that the Babylonians (and the Assyrians) knew more than what was found in their writings, such as the transfer of huge rocks and their erection, for example, or the creation of long waterways that showed advanced knowledge of the laws of physics. Colored and enameled clay. “ They were also interested in astronomy and were closely watching the moon, the sun and the stars, and they carried out this observation from religious temples and private towers in some cities. They also predicted the eclipses of the moon and the eclipses of the sun and watched the wind and clouds as well. In the light of astronomy, they divided the year into twelve months (the names of the Babylonian months are still used by Jews as well as the solar-lunar system). They divided the month into thirty or twenty-nine days and were divided today into twenty-four hours and sixty to sixty minutes. The names of astronomers have been mentioned in some of the Babylonian letters found and recorded these cases of eclipse and eclipse accurately, says Ptolemy. People have benefited from the experience of the Babylonians in this area after the disappearance of their state in particular. We read that Napo-Rimani (fifth century BC), Kadino and the priest, but Reisho (third century BC) were scientists who benefited from the Greeks in astronomy and called them Greek names. The first was named Napurianus and the second Cedinas and the third Perseus. Some scholars have discovered their origin and thought of the Greeks and attributed them to a line, and it is necessary to restore their identity to them. The priest knew that he had a seminar taught by students in the country of the Greeks at the request of them. Who wrote a Greek-language history of his homeland Babylon and its kings. Unfortunately, only a few parts of this book have reached us. It is mentioned in this book that Nebuchadnezzar built the Hanging Gardens of his wife Amites. The Greeks erected a statue in Athens. Historians have reported that Alexander the Great was impressed by the Babylonian experience in astronomy and wisdom.  Some researchers believe that the cooperation of Babylonian and Greek astronomers has contributed to the evolution of this science to an extent that can not be ignored. Some astronomers of the 6th century AD relied on Babylonian observations in the prediction of the solar eclipses. The symbols of the towers used today are originally due to the Babylonians (and there is a Babylonian plaque in the British Museum confirming this). The people of Mesopotamia were said to have made their greatest achievements in the field of mathematics and astronomy. The Babylonians invented the solar clock. The historian Herodotus (5th century BC) said that “the science of space and the solar clock and the division of the day into twelve hours did not come from Greece or Egypt but from Babylon.” The Babylonians also took care of geography and found texts containing lists of countries, mountains, rivers, cities and even inter-city distances, a very useful issue for historians of modern times. Some maps (not maps in the modern sense) were found for some cities and a plan for the city of Nippur was discovered by the Babylonians in accordance with the archaeological discoveries of the city. A map of the world dates back to the 6th century BC. The land where the sun is never seen. “Texts that indicate their interest in historical geography have also been discovered from an early age. They were also interested in history. Apart from recording the achievements of the kings during their rule and the buildings written on historical information, lists of names of royal dynasties, kings’ names, known personalities and lists of simultaneous events were found alongside the registration of military campaigns, which researchers reported not only in the history of the event but also in Know the names of kings and other countries. The lists of kings sometimes mentioned the important events of each year during the rule of these kings. The lists of useful lists of names of the gods. It is important to find a long list of tallies (the horrors of good and evil) numbering to the thousands. These circles were specialists who studied them and trained on their knowledge for a long time called one of them, “the seer or the beholder.” It is very useful to study the customs, traditions and beliefs of the Babylonian society. Some people have been influenced by “this science” (as some scholars have called) as the Muthaids and have compiled similar lists. Some of the important letters and documents were placed in clay conditions and sealed so as not to be loaded or read by unauthorized people. Some words were written on the envelope indicating the inside of the document or the letter. A large number of these were found (13). It appears that the seal of personal letters with a special seal of stone was known among the Babylonians, until Herodides mentioned that every Babylonian had his own seal. (14) The Babylonians also left us a literary heritage no matter how poetry and prose of the literature of wisdom and humor and others and comes at the head of this literature story of creation, Ishtar in the underworld and the epic Gilgamesh. This epic is one of the most important epics in ancient times. It was admired by other peoples and influenced by them and their pride in their splendor, that they translated into their languages and found their translation into the language of the Hittite and Hittite language.15 In modern times the epic was translated into more than one language on top of English as is known. It has been said about the Babylonians that they surpassed the sciences of their contemporaries from other peoples. The historian and archaeologists were impressed by the love of the Babylonians for their pure search and their love for exploration and exploration. As for Babylon in its later era, Heroddus described her admirer as impressed by her construction, planning and pompas. “There is no city like her in the world, which we know,” he said. The most famous of these gates was the Ishtarali Gate, decorated with blue-glazed tiles and a number of dragons (the symbol of God Murdoch) and a number of bulls. It is the gate of Ishtar today in the Berlin Museum, which fascinates man in its form, adornment and design. It was said that Babylon included more than a thousand temples of different sizes and shapes, 17 most important of which was the temple of the god Mardukh e Segila, which was built by King Nebuchadnezzar II. He said, “He brought him cedar wood from Lebanon and decorated it with gold and precious stones. , And became as bright as the sun. ” Some historians have mentioned that Alexander the Great – who was in Mesopotamia during his conquests and died there – was impressed by his planning and wanted to make it his world capital. Rather, he mentioned that he had already made it his capital and received